Law School Confidential: A Complete Guide to the Law School Experience: By Students, for Students | Page 6 of 352

Author: Robert H. Miller | Submitted by: Maria Garcia | 529 Views | Add a Review

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volutionary movements, authoritarian regimes, and warfare.

A central concern of this book is the question of how state nationalism is developed and how it succeeds and/or fails to be accepted by "ordinary" individuals, who, rather than questioning let alone revolting, often embrace as "natural" basic changes in culture and society initiated by political, military, and intellectual leaders. How and why do individuals sacrifice themselves for the country? In exploring these questions, I make several distinctions. First, I differentiate between the ideology of state nationalism from above and the patriotism of the individuals who sacrifice their lives. Second, I distinguish between sacrifice for the country and sacrifice for the head of the country (king/queen, emperor, fi hrer). The third distinction is between thought and action. When a solider "volunteers" to die for his country, does he do so both in thought and in action? Or does he sacrifice himself only in action without espousing the ideology of state nationalism in toto? If so, in what specific ways do individuals embrace state nationalism and in what ways do they fail or refuse to do so?

To address these questions, I investigate the development in Japan of a totalitarian ideology, centered on the emperor, that began in the nineteenth century and that culminated at the end of World War II in the institution of the tokkotai, the "Special Attack Force," known outside of Japan as the kamikaze, "God's Wind." I bring in comparative perspectives when possible, since the cry pro patria mori-"To die for one's country"-has been part of human history ever since Horace immortalized the phrase in his ode. Moreover, there are parallels between Japan and other states that have experienced fascist, totalitarian, or authoritarian regimes.

The Japanese experience described in this book illustrates how "culture" is always in motion-becoming, reproducing itself even when disintegrating at the "core"and transforming, in a constant ebb and flow. If we examine the deep past of a particular culture, we realize that every culture is comprised of a series of interpenetrations as a result of the dialectic between internal developments, global and other external forces, and social agents, who are almost always cosmopolitans; for any culture, the local and the global /external have been mutually constituent (Ohnuki-Tierney 200-1). We are thus compelled to question the basic assumptions of the debate over "the global and the local" that has gained currency in and out of the academy. The global and the local is a false dichotomy, as is the notion of hybridity, which presupposes a "pure culture" that never existed. While the Constitution of Imperial Japan of 1889 was drafted by German legal scholars and some sections were adopted almost verbatim, the Meiji oligarchs had the final say in the most important matters. Or, it would not be an exaggeration to say that since the beginning of the Meiji pe

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Alice
Great book, nicely written and thank you BooksVooks for uploading

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